The disease is commonly known as either serratia plymuthica, serratia liquefaciens, serratia rubidaea, serratia odorifera, or serratia fonticola. Aug 15, 2019 biochemical test and identification of serratia marcescens. Bacterial meningitis was diagnosed in 12 of the 46 patients who underwent a. Once considered a harmless saprophyte, serratia marcescens is now recognized as an important opportunistic pathogen combining a propensity for healthcareassociated infection and antimicrobial resistance. The first description of nosocomial infection caused by s.
The role of serratia marcescens positive nasal cultures in. They are gram ve, catalase positive, oxidase negative, mr negative and vp positive bacteria. We describe a nosocomial outbreak of serratia marcescens infections in different departaments, which occurred between may and december 2001. Serratia produces a pinkish film on surfaces that are regularly moist and subject to humid conditions. Serratia marcescens is a ubiquitous bacterial species that infects.
In this study, serratia marcescens with defined mutations in genes for extracellular cell structural components and secreted factors were used in. Pdf this study was aimed to reveal cell wall response of serratia marcescens lii61 to gram staining and its lipase and protease activities. Serratia has dark history in region army test in 1950. Proteobacterium and an opportunistic animal and insect pathogen. Outbreak of serratia marcescens associated with the flexible. Serratia is a bacterium that some doctors and residents of the bay area have been familiar with for many years. The serratia marcescens culture sensitivities for our. In the early part of the 20 th century, serratia marcescens was considered a nonpathogenic organism and was used in medical experiments and as a biological warfare test agent 1.
Bacteria proteobacteria gammaproteobacteria enterobacteriales enterobacteriaceae serratia serratia marcescens. Serratia marcescens is the most common species of serratia found in hospitals, and the only pathogenic species of serratia, except for rare reports of diseases resulting from infection with serratia plymuthica, serratia liquefaciens, serratia rubidaea, and serratia odorifera. In recent years a significant increase in the incidence of serratia marcescens infections was noted at the chang gung memorial hospital, taoyuan, taiwan. Ten died during a hospital epidemic affecting 74 patients. Serratia marcescens isolation can be accomplished more frequently when biochemical criteria are used to identify the enterobacteriaceae. It can be easily found in bathrooms, including shower corners and basins, where it appears as a pinkorangered discoloration, due to the pigment known as prodigiosin. Of these, 5 patients had identical serratia isolates determined by molecular typing, and were included in a casecontrol study. It is differentiated from other gramnegative bacteria by its ability to perform casein hydrolysis, which allows it to produce extracellular metalloproteinases which are believed to function in celltoextracellular matrix interactions. Symptoms of respiratory infection include sore throat and nasal and chest congestion. These isolates were virulent for mice ld50 107 bacteria ml31 and showed.
With the increase of antibiotic resistant bacteria strains, the need to determine the mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance is similarly rising. One component of the secretome is the chitinolytic machinery, which is a set of at least four chitinases that allow the use of insoluble extracellular chitin as sole. Epidemiological typing of serratia marcescens isolates by. Cogem released a comprehensive database of pathogenicity assessment of around 2575 bacterial species in 2011. The bacterium exhibits a complex extracellular protein secretome comprising numerous enzymes, toxins and effector molecules. Serratia marcescens, a ubiquitous, gramnegative opportunistic pathogen is known to have strong, natural resistance to diverse antimicrobial agents including antibiotics and antimicrobial peptides. Mortalitymorbidityin a populationbased studyof serratia bacteremia, the 7day and 6monthmortality rates were 5% and 37%, respectively. Prodigiosin production, serratia marcescens, antifungal, apoptosis, anticancer effect introduction serratia spp are gram negative bacteria, classified in the large family of enterobacteriaceae. Navy secret experiment in which serratia marcescens and bacillus globigii bacteria were sprayed over the san francisco bay area in california. In the early part of the 20 th century, serratia marcescens was considered a nonpathogenic organism and was used in medical experiments and as a biological warfare test agent.
It is notorious for its increasing antimicrobial resistance and its potential to cause outbreaks of colonization and infections, predominantly in neonatal intensive care units nicus. Jan, 2006 inorder to contribute to the world of serratia marcescens with respect to its prodigiosin production property. The increased rpoh levels upon heat shock resulted from both increased synthesis and stabilization of the normally unstable rpoh protein. Controlling and coordinating chitinase secretion in a. Serratia symptoms, diagnosis, treatments and causes. Gramnegative, motile, and rodshaped bacterium in the family enterobacteriaceae.
Pigmented serratia marcescens isolated in a brazilian hospital were studied. The most likely cause is an airborne bacteria called serratia marcescens. Serralysin family metalloproteases protects serratia. The most frequent site of serratia marcescens bacteria infection, however, is the bloodstream, followed by the respiratory apparatus and the gastrointestinal tract 3. It was discovered in 1819 by bartolomeo bizio in padua, italy. Serratia marcescens infections volume 7 issue 5 jacques f. Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen. Review of prodigiosin, pigmentation in serratia marcescens article pdf available in online journal of biological sciences 61 january 2006 with 2,996 reads how we measure reads.
Clinical relevance and virulence factors of pigmented serratia. Serratia species are gramnegative bacilli of the enterobacteriaceae group of bacteria, although they are not a common component of healthy human fecal flora. Serratia marcescens conjunctivitis due to nasolacrimal. This type of bacterial infection shows some antibiotic resistance. Serratia marcescens antimicrobial resistance infection. Serratia marcescens lypholized bacteria details of the supplier of the safety data sheet manufacturersupplier. Des plaines, il 60018 8478039495 emergency telephone number. Serratia meningitis and serratia endocarditiscarry a high mortality rate. Triptic soy agar tsaused for plating unless otherwise noted was streaked with unknown. Serratia species cause less than 6% of cases ofhospitalacquired bacterial pneumonia.
Serratia marcescens definition of serratia marcescens by. Serratia marcescens, which can cause nosocomial outbreaks,and urinary tract and wound infections, is abundant in damp environments figure. Bacterial sensitivity of serratia marcescens against antibiotics ayesha ali. Serratia marcescens was later renamed monas prodigiosus in 1846, then bacillus prodigiosus, before the original name was restored in the 1920s in recognition of the work of bizio. Outbreak of serratia marcescens associated with the. Biochemical test and identification of serratia marcescens. Exposure to the postanesthesia care unit was a risk factor identified in bivariate analysis. There, its spread requires rapid infection control response. Pdf we presented a sepsis outbreak caused by serratia marcescens from contaminated propofol to raise awareness. Serratia marcescens is a member of the genus serratia, which is a part of the family enterobacteriaceae. Serratia marcescens is a rare opportunistic bacterium that is categorized in the enterobateriaceae family commonly found in the environment.
Serratia marcescens belongs to the family enterobacteriaceae, which is commonly found in water, soil, animals, insects, plants. Accurate identification is important in defining outbreaks. Serratia marcescens synonyms, serratia marcescens pronunciation, serratia marcescens translation, english dictionary definition of serratia marcescens. The unknown bacteria was grown in various media, observed, and tested. Serratia bacteria are naturally resistant to many commonly used antibiotics but there are several groups that are very effective for infections caused by serratia marcescens as well as other species from the genus. The api 20e system has been used widely, but is not individually. Pdf dangerous bacteria of the genus serratia researchgate. Jul 27, 2017 serratia marcescens is a common bacterium that can cause a number of serious opportunistic infections in hospital patients. Sep 19, 2018 in this study, serratia marcescens with defined mutations in genes for extracellular cell structural components and secreted factors were used in predation experiments to identify structures that. Strains of serratia marcescens involved in epidemic events have frequently proved to be multiresistant. The database ranks the pathogenicity of species on a scale of 1 to 4 1. Serratia marcescens infectious disease and antimicrobial agents.
Apr 14, 2014 the presence of serratia should be strongly suspected whenever there is a pink pigmented residue that may be slightly slimy looking, or feeling, in wet areas such as toilets rims, shower stalls, bathroom corners, and sinks. It was found that serratia marcescens was susceptible to following ant. Extended epidemic of nosocomial urinary tract infections. This brings up the possibility that serratia marcescens could play a role in the unified airway, similar to pseudomonas aeruginosa15. It is most frequently observed in toilet bowls, on surfaces in shower stalls, inside dishwashers, on tiles, in sinks and in pet water dishes. During a 14month period, 176 strains of s marcescens were isolated, predominantly from hospitalized patients. Dec 17, 2011 serratia marcescens is a human pathogenic species of serratia. Serratia marcescens, which can cause nosocomial outbreaks,and urinary tract and wound infections, is abundant in damp environments. The discoloration is most likely an airborne bacteria called serratia marcescens. Pdf cell wall response of bacteria serratia marcescens lii61. Serratia marcescens an overview sciencedirect topics. As part of a bioweapon experiment, serratia marcescens pictured on an agar plate above was released in san francisco back in 1950.
Serratia infection is responsible for about 2% of nosocomial infections of the bloodstream, lower respiratory tract, urinary tract, surgical wounds, and skin and soft tissues and other ailments that are commonly caused by other bacteria. Serratia marcescens is a human pathogenic species of serratia. Bacterial sensitivity of serratia marcescens against. The color can identify the age of the bacterial colony which thrives in the soil, water, and the digestive. As with most types of bacterial infection, the main treatment for serratia marcescens is antibiotics. O genero serratia pode ser encontrado em alimentos, agua e plantas e sua patogenicidade e reconhecida desde os anos 60. The level of rpoh in serratia marcescens and pseudomonas aeruginosa cells was very low at 30c but was elevated markedly upon a shift to 42c, as found previously with e. An outbreak of pulmonary infection due to serratia marcescens was traced to the use of flexible fiber bronchoscope. Serratia species are opportunistic gramnegative bacteria classified in the tribe klebsielleae and the large family enterobacteriaceae. The bacteria can cause urinary tract infection, pneumonia, respiratory tract infections, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, septicemia, eye infection, meningitis and wound infections.
Serratia marcescens and klebsiella were the cause of an epidemic. This bacteria is common and generally grows in damp conditions such as those found in bathrooms and kitchens. Serratia marcescens bacteria, sources of infection, risk. Outbreak of serratia marcescens associated with the flexible fiberbronchoscope sidney f. Falkinham concerning our questions about serratia marcescens, which is one of the bacterias that katherine was battling at the end.
Over the last 30 years, serratia marcescens has become an important cause of nosocomial infection. Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic, gram negative, nosocomial pathogen which belongs to family, enterobacteriaceae. Comparison to controls identified the bacteria as serratia marcescens. The clinical and radiological manifestations were correlated with the necropsy findings in the lungs of 18 patients who died of serratia marcescens infection. Jul 06, 2015 as part of a bioweapon experiment, serratia marcescens pictured on an agar plate above was released in san francisco back in 1950. There have been many reports concerning the identification, antibiotic susceptibility, pathogenicity, epidemiological investigations and typing of this organism. Navy released the pathogens off the shore of san francisco. Review of prodigiosin, pigmentation in serratia marcescens. The unknown, now identified as serratia marcescens, belongs to the family enterobacteriaceae. Mechanisms of bacterial serratia marcescens attachment. This specie is pink in color and is not to be confused with the methylobacterium that we sometimes see in. These colored patches are likely to be serratia bacterial colonies. To understand its spread, detailed molecular typing is key. It was discovered by bizio, an italian pharmacist, in 1819, when he identified it as a cause of the bloody discolouration on cornmeal mush.
Serratia marcescens can be deadly in humans as documented in 1996 when the center for. Abstract serratia marcescens, a wellknown human pathogen, was tested with a large number of antibiotics belonging to the following groups. In 1950, government officials believed that serratia did not cause disease. The bacteria can produce prodigiosin, a pigment color that ranges from lights pink to dark red. The word marcescens was chosen from latin for the species name meaning to decay, reflecting the rapid deterioration of the pigment. Nosocomial cluster following narcotic diversion volume 38 issue 9 leah m. Serratia marcescens a rare opportunistic nosocomial. Serratia marcescens bacteria are used for production of threonine.451 271 915 385 1026 868 1227 111 900 340 1135 872 1408 411 1485 22 936 643 1420 560 1263 1481 527 455 174 685 886 863 483 1308 1404 579 229 941 678 231 950 378 1297